Latest News

  • PPG posts record results as coatings, glass, business picks up

    Tuesday, 22 April 2014

    The positive results from paints and coatings producer PPG show that demand is returning to these end markets, which is good news for the minerals which serve them, such as titanium dioxide, silica sand and iron oxide.

  • DuPont sees earning slide in TiO2, fluorochemicals, arm – but outlook good

    Tuesday, 22 April 2014

    While the slide in earnings in the segment which encompasses the titanium dioxide (TiO2) business is not exactly positive, an increase in volume and positive remarks from the both the CFO and CEO of DuPont mark a change as we go into Q2.

  • Leading paint company results a relief for TiO2 markets

    Thursday, 17 April 2014

    The latest set of results for AkzoNobel, a leading paint and coatings producer, show that while demand lags in Europe, Asia is starting to pick up — which has seen an increase in volume for its end products. Adverse currency conditions are keenly felt in this set of results also.

  • Iluka Q1 production and revenues drop as mineral sands volumes stay low

    Wednesday, 16 April 2014

    A slow start to 2014 has led to lower revenue and production compared with the previous year, reflecting lower volumes and prices. However some areas such as zircon are showing potential driven by an increased demand from specific regions.

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Pricing News

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  • The Great Occasion

    Friday, 21 March 2014

    The Industrial Minerals Congress launched 40 years ago, in 1974, and was attended by over 400 delegates from 36 different countries. As we prepare for the 22nd Congress, which will be held in Vancouver this month, IM approached several industry leaders and asked each of them the same five questions to get their perspectives on how the market has changed. Siobhan Lismore-Scott, Editor

  • Pricing sentiments diverge on downstream outlooks in March

    Friday, 21 March 2014

    Barite prices steady but strong on oilfield demand while TiO2 trends downwards in Europe during Q1

  • Diary Dates March 2014

    Friday, 21 February 2014

    Industry Events for the industrial minerals market

  • Africa – open for business?

    Friday, 24 January 2014

    Besides a long-envied geological resource abundance, Africa boasts many attractions for mining companies. Yet development has been hampered by political turmoil. Now, as much of the continent begins a concerted drive to increase investment in its mining sector, IM Staff take a look of some of the industrial mineral projects on the African horizon.

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Market Brief

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment that is a key ingredient of paints, coatings, paper and plastics. For white products, TiO2 is the material of choice as it is the brightest and whitest commercially available pigment.

TiO2 is manufactured from the minerals ilmenite, rutile and, in smaller quantities, leucoxene, which are primarily sourced from mineral sand deposits, but also can be processed from hard rock deposits.

There are two commercially active ways of manufacturing TiO2: the sulphate and chloride routes. Sulphate tends to utilise the lower grade mineral ilmenite, while chloride processing favours higher quality feedstocks such as rutile.

Zircon is an entirely separate mineral and contains no TiO2. It is however commonly tied up with titanium mineral deposits so most producers also sell quantities of zircon. For few it is the primary focus, but for many miners it is a high-value, by-product bonus.


TiO2 pigment is a mature industry which has been developed by the chemicals industry. While North America and Europe host the majority of plants, new plants under construction in China are starting to readdress this imbalance.

Leading producers include: DuPont, Cristal Global, Huntsman Corp., Kronos Worldwide and Tronox.

In terms of feedstock mineral production, Australia and South Africa are leading producers. Since 2008/09, new African sources have come online in Mozambique and Madagascar.

In terms of tonnages, ilmenite is by far the largest mined TiO2 mineral. On average it has between 52-54% TiO2 content and is purchased, in the main, by those that manufacturer sulphate TiO2.

Rutile has almost double the TiO2 content at 92-95% TiO2 but is less abundant than ilmenite. The biggest commercially active sources are in Australia and Sierra Leone.

Leading producers of TiO2 minerals include: Iluka Resources (Australia), Exxaro Resources (South Africa), Rio Tinto (Australia), Kenmare Resources (Ireland/Mozambique), Bemax Resources (Australia), Consolidated Rutile (Australia) and Titanium Resources Group (UK/Sierra Leone).

Zircon is commonly tied up with titanium mineral sand deposits but has very different market applications. It is almost double the US dollar value of rutile.

Most of producers of titanium minerals from sand have zircon by-production but the focus on this high-value production is increasing in line with demand driven by China.

Chloride route: 55%

Sulphate route: 45%

Global capacity (tonnes): 5.6m. tpa


The largest market is TiO2’s direct use as a white pigment in industrial and household paints and coatings for products such as cars. Significant quantities are also used in plastics and paper where its whiteness is still a primary reason for its use.  

The majority of zircon production finds its way into ceramics, although refractories and foundry sands are also important end uses. In ceramics, China is the biggest influencing factor importing around a third of world supply as it has few zircon sources of its own.