Alumina/Bauxite

Latest News

  • World crude steel output up 5% in January 2021

    Monday, 01 March 2021

    Global crude steel output increased by 4.8% year on year to 162.9 million tonnes in January 2021, the World Steel Association (Worldsteel) said on February 26, marking the third monthly consecutive increase.

  • Biden signs order to strengthen US supply chains, address chips shortage

    Friday, 26 February 2021

    United States President Joe Biden signed an executive order on Wednesday February 24 intended to secure his nation’s supply chains through a review of critical products, which will include computer chips and batteries.

  • AT A GLANCE: Nabaltec reports improvement in Q4 revenue, sees recovery in 2021

    Thursday, 25 February 2021

    German specialty alumina supplier Nabaltec AG expects single-digit revenue growth in 2021 after achieving an increase in the fourth quarter of last year, according to preliminary results released on Thursday February 25.

  • Bauxite price spread narrows, WFA ticks up as BFA firm

    Friday, 19 February 2021

    Refractory-grade bauxite prices showed a reduction this week from previously wider spreads, with China gradually returning to the market after the Lunar New Year holiday, while white fused alumina (WFA) ticked upward on higher operational costs and brown fused alumina (BFA) held firm.

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Features

  • Bauxite shortage likely for refractories

    Monday, 15 February 2021

    Refractory raw material consumers are likely to face shortages in bauxite, with the continued supply and logistics bottlenecks from China coming against a low-stock situation in destination markets.

  • Calcined alumina sellers see demand returning

    Monday, 15 February 2021

    Calcined alumina suppliers hope the recent increase in demand they have noted will prompt a rebound in prices later in the year.

  • China's brown fused alumina exports tumble in 2020

    Monday, 15 February 2021

    China’s exports of refractory-grade bauxite and white fused alumina dropped slightly in 2020, while exports of brown fused alumina plunged by 26%, owing to preference for lower-priced WFA according to sources.

  • Environmental controls squeeze fused alumina, bauxite supply

    Monday, 15 February 2021

    Supply uncertainty facing the refractories raw material sector is to continue in the first quarter of 2021 due to regulations in major Chinese production hubs for bauxite and fused alumina, as well as surging logistics costs.

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Market Brief

Bauxite is the primary source of aluminium metal, and about 85% of bauxite mined is processed via the Bayer Process to make alumina trihydrate (ATH), then smelter grade alumina (SGA) from which aluminium metal is derived.


The respective processes take place in an alumina refinery and aluminium smelter, which may or may not be integrated.


The remaining 15% of crude bauxite mined is used to produce a range of non-metallurgical bauxite grades and non-metallurgical alumina grades.

 

Bauxite

There are three main bauxites types – boehmite, diaspore, and gibbsite – which each differ in chemical and physical characteristics, and each have predominance in certain regions of the world.

 

Owing to their different characteristics, bauxites are carefully selected for non-metallurgical uses as demanded by the required end use specifications of the derived bauxite and alumina grades.

 

According to the USGS, 201m. tonnes of bauxite was mined in 2009.

 

Although metallurgical grade bauxite may be suitable for certain non-metallurgical applications, such as in cements and slag conditioning, most non-metallurgical bauxites are confined to specific regions in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Guinea, Greece, Guyana, Turkey and the USA.

 

The primary sources of non-metallurgical bauxite are China, Greece, Guyana and Turkey.

 

About 5% of bauxite is mined and processed for direct use as non-metallurgical bauxite grades. Raw, uncalcined bauxite is used for cement, slag conditioning, and chemicals.

 

Calcined bauxite is produced to make abrasive, refractory, welding, and proppant grades.

 

Abrasive grade bauxite is fused to manufacture brown fused alumina used in abrasives and refractories.

 

Alumina

The remaining mined bauxite, about 10%, is processed using the Bayer Process to manufacture ATH, the precursor to a range of non-metallurgical grade alumina (NMGA) grades which serve a wide variety of end uses.

 

Although there are specific NMGA plants, some SGA refineries also host a certain amount of capacity for NMGA production. This may change as market demand for SGA and NMGA dictates.

 

This NMGA market is estimated to total 5.5-5.8m. tpa. The bulk of the NMGA market is termed “commodity hydrate”, eg. used to make aluminium sulphate for water treatment (see pie charts), although fine grades are used as high value flame retardants.

 

The remainder, some 2.8m. tpa is defined as “speciality” or “premium” grades, which are based on calcined aluminas. These are used in higher value end uses, such as in refractories, ceramics, and polishing.

 

Calcined aluminas are also the feedstock to produce high value, high purity grades of tabular alumina and white fused alumina.

 

Bauxite producers

Bosai Minerals Group – China

Demireller Mining – Turkey

Hellenic Mining Enterprises – Greece

S&B Industrial Minerals – Greece

 

Alumina producers

Alcoa – USA

Almatis – Germany

Aluchem – USA

MAL Magyar Aluminium – Hungary

Martinswerk – Germany

Nabaltec – Germany

Alteo – France

 

Fused alumina producers

C-E Minerals (part of Imerys) – USA

Elfusa – Brazil

Henan Mianchi Great Wall Corundum – China

Treibacher Schleifmittel – Austria

Washington Mills Electro Minerals – USA