After many years of global
consolidation, from a corporate perspective the talc industry
seems to have entered a transitional period. The worlds
two leading producers, Luzenac Group and Mondo Minerals BV,
accounting for some 36% of the market, are changing
In February 2011, Rio Tinto
Minerals (RTM) finally offloaded its talc business, Luzenac
Group, and found a ready, if not unexpected, buyer in Imerys
-the deal is undergoing formal approvals and is expected to be
complete later in 2011.
In March 2011, Mondo Minerals BV
was put up for sale by its parent of four years, London-based
private equity group HgCapital, which is awaiting a buyer.
Meanwhile, the market remains
cautious amid a wait-and-see strategy, looking
forward to see how the two transactions will impact the
The global talc space is in a
bit of a flux at this time, with many transactions pending and
a new landscape is likely to evolve over the next six to 18
months. Mitchell Koppelman, vice president, strategic
planning, Minerals Technologies Inc. (MTI), explained to
So anything we might say now
will more than likely be moot in short time, Koppelman
World production of talc is about
7.5m. tpa, the main producers being China, since the country
overtook the USA, followed by India (see table
The main market for talc is paper
(40%), although its paper filler application, as opposed to
pitch control, is decreasing. Talcs biggest growth area
is in plastics (18%; see talc at a glance panel
The industry is getting back on
stream from the global recession. It is safe to say that
talc suppliers have benefitted from the (slight) business turn
upwards since the 2008-09 recessionary period, said
Corrado Fabi, from Italys
Industria Mineraria Italiani (IMI) Fabi SpA, described to
IM the industry as stable in advanced
economies, growing in South East Asia and South
Compared to 2009, markets have
improved markedly. As Bob Virta, talc analyst at the US
Geological Survey (USGS) underlined to IM,
many of the industries that consume talc have increased output
in 2011, although they probably are tentative about
expanding too rapidly given the lingering effects of the
In the USA, it looks as
though the large producers are recovering faster than the small
producers, likely because of their more diverse markets and
customer base, Virta commented.
However, he highlighted that
the housing foreclosure issue in the USA still affects
the talc industry, with construction markets being slower to
recover than manufacturing markets.
Sushil Kothari, president of
Indias Golcha Group, noticed that in terms of volume, the
talc market is stable. However, there may be a shift from
one segment to another. he declared to
IM, notably the paper industry from talc to
calcium carbonate in South Asia. It is also increasing in
polymer and speciality uses, he added.
The industry also has to overcome a
few challenges, the main one being availability of bright
grades with consistent quality. Limited availability of
pure and white talc from China with increased prices has
created a gap in demand in supply and space for other pure and
white talc supplying countries, said Rakesh Kumar,
general manager - marketing, at Indias Golcha
As a result, the trend is expected
to go to lower tonnages and higher value. In the USA and
many western European countries, growth has reached a plateau
and more emphasis has been placed on developing more advanced
products which will command higher prices rather than simply on
improving tonnage sales, explained Virta.
A few major players
The talc supply sector, originally represented across the world
by a large number of small to medium-scale producers, has been
reduced to handful of companies as it is following the global
trend of consolidation started during the 1980s.
| Luzenac Groups
production sites worldwide
9 mines; 13 processing facilities including two under
joint venture management
Ranking first, Luzenac Group, until
recently owned by Rio Tinto Minerals (RTM), the industrial
minerals division of UK-headquartered Rio Tinto, has clearly
emerged through a series of acquisitions as the leading player,
accounting for 23% of world talc demand with about 1m. tpa
Luzenac is followed by
Finlands Mondo Minerals (13%) in second place, which was
acquired from European ground calcium carbonate producer (GCC)
Omya AG by private equity firm Hg Capital, London, in 2007.
Mondo produces about 800,000 tpa.
Chinese producers account for
nearly 33% of world supply, while leading western players
include Italys Industria Mineraria Italiani (IMI) Fabi
SpA, and USA Specialty Minerals Inc. (SMI), part of
Mineral Technologies Inc. (MTI).
IMI Fabi produced about 300,000
tonnes worldwide in 2010. The company revealed to
IM that the main development in 2011
will be in Australia to further develop the white talc
mine at Mt. Seabrook.
RT Vanderbilt Co., USA, ceased
mining talc in Q1 2008, and processed ore from stockpiles until
Add to this the two Indian
producers, Golcha Group and Golcha Associated Group, and you
have the main players dominating world trade in talc (see
China leads the market
With a talc reserve of about 55m. tonnes, resources of 247m.
tonnes, according the Ministry of Land and Resources, and an
estimated 200-300 talc mines, China is the worlds leading
China produces 2m. tpa - 33%
of global output - and hosts eight major producers. The five
provinces of Liaoning, Guangxi, Shandong, Qinghai, and Jiangxi
account for 90% of Chinas talc output (see
Since the 1980s, the country had
been the largest talc exporter but the government started to
implement administrative control over talc export quotas in
1996, therefore reducing export volumes that year from 1.59m.
to 1.03m. tonnes.
As reported by Jia Xiu Zhuang,
director at Haichen MinChem Co. Ltd, the first issue was the
outcome of controlling the export quota volume, followed by the
reaction towards market changes.
The international market has always
been the major driver of Chinese talc industrial development.
However, changes in the domestic market have captured attention
in recent years.
Before the mid-1990s, the majority
of Chinese talc, mainly low grade talc products, was used for
paper filler. However, this part of the business started to
shrink in the 1990s, rapidly declining in the 2000s. Even
without the limitation of export volumes in1996, talc exports
began to dwindle quickly after 1996.
Contrary to this, middle to high
grade talc used in plastic, paint, and cosmetics has seen
tremendous growth in recent years. After the 1990s, talc demand
grew from the plastic market boom, this was the most important
application and growth point for Chinese talc exports after
At present, 50% of the export
market is destined for plastics demand, followed by paint and
In 2009, Chinese production of
paper, paint, automobiles, and home appliances reached number
one in the world. These markets are the key application areas
of talc, and each has huge market potential. The Yangtse River
Delta and Pearl River Delta are the main talc consuming
The future key growth market
is in the plastics field, particularly polypropylene, which is
used in the automobile, home appliance, and packaging
industries, their annual growth rate will be maintained at
around 5-10%, forecast Jia.
Virta from the USGS believes that
Asian markets still have room for growth because their
talc-consuming industries are still expanding. Growth in
Asian talc sales will eventually slow as the talc markets
mature but that will not be for quite a few years, he
| Leading talc producing
companies based on 6.1m. tonnes (%)
Source: Industry sources compiled by Ian
As David Stuart, sales director, Richard Baker Harrison Ltd
(RBH), UK, underlined to IM, the Indian
sub-continent is re-emerging as a competitive force in talc.
This is a welcome development for long term participants,
such as RBH, at a time that export availability from China is
becoming tighter, he declared.
In India, two major producers
dominate the market: Golcha Group followed by Golcha Associated
Group. Both located in Jaipur, Rajasthan - the main
producing state - they supply markets such as cosmetics
and polymers with high quality material and speciality
According to the British Geological
Survey (BGS) data, total production in the country in 2009 was
about 820,000 tonnes, a 21% increase compared to 2005.
In Rajasthan, talc accounts for
about 85% of the total production of India. There are mainly
two belts for high grade quality talc - Udaipur and
Bhilwara. However talc production is also reported from other
parts of Rajasthan including Dausa district. Production of talc
increased by almost 37% between 2008 and 2009.
Ajay Kulshreshtha from AK Minerals
Consultancy Services reported to IM that
Associated Soapstone Distributing Co., in Udaipur, is to expand
micronising capacity by adding a jet mill to produce 35-40,000
tpa micronised talc. The companys present talc production
is about 300,000 tpa.
Vardhman Group, also exploiting the
Udaipur belt, has plans to increase production to 200,000.
Combined production from the
Udaipur belt is expected to increase to 660,000 tpa, and from
Bhilwara is expecetd to reach 400,000 tpa talc.
Kulshreshtha commented: The
rising trend in talc production is going to continue because
there is no direct competition from the foreign suppliers due
to its purity, whiteness and competitive price range.
The policies of the central
government have helped the mine owners to meet international
standards and competitiveness Kulshreshtha added.
| Talc prices
|Talc, South African, pharmaceutical, FOB
|Talc (Cosmetic/Paint A Grade
FCLs bagged) FOB Durban
|Talc, (Paint / Soap B Grade
FCLs bagged) FOB Durban
|Talc, Chinese normal, 200 mesh , ex-store
|Talc, Chinese, normal, 350 mesh, ex-store
| * Price example quoted in
market place at time of press
Source: IM July 2011
Golcha Group, which has three
mining operations in Rajasthan, produces 300,000 tpa with a
capacity of more than 400,000 tpa. In 2009, the company opened
a 36,000 tpa talc processing plant in Rayong, Thailand,
operated by M/S Golcha-Chemintac Co. Ltd.
The company exports its products
mainly to Asia, Africa, Australia and Europe, supplying the
polymer, cosmetics and specialities end markets.
Golcha Group revealed to
IM that expansion work is in progress to
further increase the capacity. We have a planned increase
in our Thailand plant capacity to meet the demand from South
East Asia, said president Sushil Kothari. The company is
also working on developing new micronised products for polymers
In addition, Golcha plans to
establish a processing unit in Europe. Indias leading
talc producer, which had a very active interest in
Luzenac could potentially be interested in acquiring
Mondo Minerals in order to fulfil its European expectations,
Khotari revealed to IM (see
Golcha Associated Group, the
countrys second largest talc producer, produces 200,000
tpa of talc powder at its mines located in Bhungapat, Devpura
and Devla in Rajhasthan, and processes talc at its facilities
in Udaipur, supplying the paper, plastics, paints, and
Rakesh Kumar , general
manager - marketing, told IM that the
company plans to develop its assets. Golcha Associated plans
the expansion of its grinding facilities in terms of new
factories and new hi-tech machines for fine material production
(up to 1.5 micron top cut), and plans to produce nano
talc on a commercial scale.
According to Kulshreshtha, the
consumption of talc for paper filling in the paper industry has
been greatly reduced owing to the change in paper manufacturing
technology. Therefore demand may increase marginally due
to increase in paper production only, he said. Demand for
paper coating is expected to grow by 10% in 2011-2012.
The cosmetic segment for Indian talc is also growing both for
domestic and export markets. Kulshreshtha expects the export
market to grow by 25%. This may be attributed to the
increase in global demand of higher whiteness talc and the
increasing prices of Chinese talc, he said, adding:
The market for Indian talc seems to be very good due to
the high growth in major talc consuming industries in India and
| World talc production 2005
& 2009 (tonnes)
|Korea, Dem. P.R. of
|Korea, Republic of
| * Estimate
Source: British Geological Survey
North Korean alternative
North Korea is attracting growing interest from the industry as
a potential alternative to Chinese talc. North Korean talc is
found associated with magnesite at the magnesite mines of Ryong
Yang and Dae Hung which are operated by the Korea Magnesia
Clinker Industry Group (KMCIG).
North Korean talc shows high
qualities suitable for most applications. It is a pure talc
with 97-98% talc and only trace amounts of chlorite and quartz.
According to the BGS, the country produces an estimated 50,000
In 2005 Yasheya Ltd started to
export magnesia products from North Korea to Europe and has
also started to transport some talc. The company ships between
5-15,000 tpa North Korean talc.
Mondo Minerals also produces talc
from North Korea as it holds a 51% share in a talc mining jv
since 2006, with the remaining 49% held by Korea Kwang Ob
Trading Corp., a government-owned organisation.
The jv produces 1-1,500 tpa of high
grade white talc lump that is sold to Mondo.
In June, private equity investment
trust HgCapital, Mondos mother company since 2007, was
challenged over its links to North Korea and the fact that the
mine may have used political prisoners in its labour force.
Contacted by IM,
HgCapital declared that political prisoners have never been
used in the labour force that works in the mine, underlining
that a 1,000 tpa production equates to only 0.2% of
Nothing has changed and there
is no necessity for Mondo to change the terms of its
engagement, HgCapital commented.
An industry source explained to
IM that even though foreign mining companies
try to practice regular controls over the work condition of
local workers in the country, it remains difficult to be
totally sure of what is going on over there.
But I would be surprised if
they were using political prisoners to work in these mines as
they want to start working with foreign companies in order to
develop their mining resources, the source said.
Supply sector consolidation
With the continuing trend in world consolidation, including
within China, US-based RT Vanderbilt Co. Inc. exiting the talc
market in 2009, and the sale of Luzenac and Mondo Minerals this
year, the corporate landscape of the talc market is undergoing
Although the industry is buzzing
with expectation, talc players remain cautiously optimistic
about what will happen to the two companies, and how it will
impact the market with their holding of about 36% of the global
Consolidation is probably
good for countries with many small operations such as
China, Bob Virta, USGS, commented to IM.
I am cautious about consolidation that will reduce
competition too much though. For example, the USA is probably
near that threshold with only three major producers. It
probably is the same in many other countries.
The USGS analyst does not think
that a small amount of consolidation will affect the talc
markets too much. Consolidation should increase
efficiency so it may actually slow a rise in talc pricing.
Although I have concerns about too much consolidation, the talc
industry may at this stage be such an internationally traded
commodity that a little consolidation may not result in much of
a reduction in competition, he explained.
For Rakesh Kumar, general manager -
marketing, Golcha Associated Group, this will lead to
quality products to market at competitive prices... as the
smaller player will gradually phase out due to non
The bigger players will tie
up with global partner to take advantage of each other in terms
of technology, freight advantage etc. Kumar
Corrado Fabi believes that the
current trend of consolidation is good because
overcapacity will be limited. It will improve service and
quality levels, he declared to IM.
Sushil Kothari, Golcha Group, does
not think that the transaction would have any significant
affect as the same level of international production is likely
to be maintained.
On the supply side, the
Imerys acquisition of Luzenac demonstrates commitment to talc
and provides the opportunity for strategic development of the
mineral, commented David Stuart, RBH, which trades talc
RBH see this as positive for
the industry as a whole and hope that a similarly committed
investor will emerge for Mondo, said Stuart.
Imerys nets RTMs Luzenac
As had been expected by much of the market, Imerys SA,
continued its acquisition strategy by finally acquiring the
worlds leading talc producer Luzenac Group from Rio Tinto
On 23 February 2011, Rio Tinto Plc
received a $340m. binding offer from Imerys for its talc assets
operated by RTM.
Imerys is unable to comment on the
move until the deal is formally concluded, expected by the end
of 2011. Luzenacs integration into Imerys be one of the
first tasks of Imerys new chief executive officer, Gilles
Michel. The deal represents Imerys most significant
acquisition since its £756m. takeover of English China
Clays Plc, then as Imetal, in 1999.
The acquisition looks to be an
ideal fit for Imerys mineral portfolio, in particular
complementing the groups existing calcium carbonate and
kaolin supply to the paper, paint, and plastics markets, in
addition to kaolin supply to ceramics - talc ticks all
these market boxes.
The Luzenac group has a number of
talc deposits which supply various beneficiation plants in
Asia-Pacific, Europe, and North America. In some cases the
plants are supplied by lump talc imported from China and
elsewhere (see table).
As Rakesh Kumar from Golcha
Associated Group underlined to IM, This
will help Imerys extend its coverage to almost all the talc
consuming segments building on its existing relations with
these segments who are already buying calcium carbonate from
Industrial minerals consultant Ian
Wilson considers that talc is the perfect fit for
them. They will be able to offer different blends
and different mixtures Ð a whole host of things, he
Most players in the talc industry
seem to see the deal in a positive way. Bob Virta from USGS
believes the acquisition will be good for the industry as
Imerys is dedicated to industrial minerals. The purchase
will fit nicely with Imerys other industrial minerals
ventures. ÊIf they add a couple of other types of
industrial minerals, they can truly be called a one-stop shop
for ceramics, paper, and a few other market segments,
This would be a good move for
Imerys and for the talc industry, Corrado Fabi, IMI Fabi,
confirmed to IM, adding: We need our
Mondo Minerals for sale
In March 2011, the worlds second largest talc producer,
Finlands Mondo Minerals BV, was put up for sale by its
parent of four years, London-based private equity group
Mondo Minerals has an estimated 13%
share of the 6.1m. tonne global talc market with a total talc
processing capacity of 800,000 tpa, supplying filler
applications in the paper, plastics, adhesive, rubber and
sealants markets (see chart).
Wulf-Dietrich Keller, former CEO of
the Amsterdam-based group confirmed to IM at
the time of the announcement that shareholder HgCapital
is actively considering disposing of Mondo and is
exploring this avenue.
According to a recent
Reuters report, HgCapital has hired Lazard to advise
on the divestment, and is hoping to net some Û300-400m.
($433-564m.) from the sale.
But HgCapital would not give
further information at time of press. We never comment on
market speculation regarding its [HgCapitals]
investments, spokesman George Hudson told
A move from India?
The industry has not stopped buzzing since the HgCaptial
announcement. Interestingly, this comes at a time when the
Chinese talc industry, long a major world supplier, is facing
challenges in quality and supply.
With Imerys clearly out of the
picture with regard to picking up Mondo Minerals on anti-trust
grounds, and industrial minerals conglomerate Sibelco having
earlier commented that it was not interested in Luzenac, it
might be that a Chinese or Indian player could make a move for
the Finnish talc producer.
As an industry source told
IM, Mondo investors have carefully
picked their time. My view is that whilst Luzenac was on the
market, Mondo would not get much interest from buyers. Now that
Luzenac is effectively bought, Mondo probably sees itself as
the only apple left in the bowl.
As a consequence, it is very likely
that Mondo is looking to catch any parties on the bounce which
had an interest in buying Luzenac but failed.
Indian or Chinese companies
are certainly favourite as buyers. If either had a funding plan
in place to make a bid for Luzenac, I would expect them to
enter into negotiations for Mondo. My money is on
In India, only one player would
have the capacity to make such a deal: Golcha Group. Sushil
Kothari, president, confirmed to IM the
companys interest in Luzenac when it was put on the
market. Therefore, acquiring Mondo would appear as a logical
With our long experience in
the talc business, we are interested in expanding further
globally by either acquiring ongoing talc operations or growing
on our own outside of India. We have already expanded our
activity very successfully in East Asia and are now looking at
Europe, Khotari said.
Mondo Minerals has its own
limitations but we could be interested only if it is
realistically valued, he added.
In contrast, Corrado Fabi, IMI
Fabi, believes that another private equity firm will
likely be the buyer.
Virta, USGS, who tends to
favour a company that will want to have a long-term interest in
Mondo Minerals is however concerned that some
investment firms may view any such purchase as a short term
Talc prices are quite stable at present , rising 3% on average
(see table). Khotari from Golcha Group described them
to IM as internationally stable, with a
maximum 2 % growth while Corrado Fabi pointed out that
they are low for finished products, high for raw
Prices are improving as
compared to 2009 to mid-2010. But simultaneously the costs are
also increasing, Fabi warned.
According to Kumar from Indian
competitor Golcha Associated Group, talc prices are however
coming back to the fair values as compared to the cheaper
talc supplies from China in earlier days.
In India, Ajay Kulshreshtha from AK
Minerals Consultancy Services reported prices in the range of
$100-600/tonne depending upon the purity, whiteness and micron
In June, Rio Tinto Minerals
announced that was planning a 5% price increase on talc
products from its Montana, Vermont and Canadian operations.
The increase, which was effective
from 15 July, aims to offset the effects of a continuous rise
in energy and fuel costs directly related to mining,
processing, packaging and transportation.
We have a strong track record
of improving operating efficiencies and these efforts will
continue, said Kent Cutler, vice president sales for the
At the same time, it is
essential that we adjust our pricing to offset cost increases
beyond our control in order to maintain the service levels and
product quality that make a difference to our customers,
On 1 June last year, Rio Tinto
increased prices of talc products from its North American
operations by 8% in order to cover increasing transportation
and production costs.
The slight increase is expected to
continue. Virta from the USGS believes that prices will
probably continue to increase with increased operating
Many new talc products are
likely to require more processing, also resulting in higher
prices, Virta said, while Fabi confirmed that
finished product prices will probably go up.
Meanwhile, Khotari, Golcha Group,
foresees that prices shall remain as per the historical
trend which is approximate 2% growth per year, however
underlining that a better realisation due to change in
product mix for different segments can fuel better
But it remains difficult to
forecast an exact trend in prices at present at it is very
likely they will be affected by the sales of Luzenac and Mondo
in the mid-term.
A changing competitive
landscape can influence pricing strategies, one way or
another, pointed out Mitchell Koppelman, MTI.
Whilst it is unlikely that
costs will fall, we do anticipate a period of stability during
which the significant price increases we have seen in recent
years will moderate, said David Stuart, RBH.
The industry is going through significant changes, in terms of
regions, quality, and applications.
The paper filler industry switching
to calcium carbonate at the expense of talc remains one of the
main challenges while the automotive, coating, paints, polymers
and cosmetics industries remain the end markets with the best
Kumar from Golcha Associated Group
pointed out to IM that the supply of low
grade talc mixture to small users as a difficulty, in
addition to developing customised products from lower
grade talc. Sustainable growth will become a major
topic at all levels, Fabi added.
In addition, the polymer industry
is looking for value-added materials and finer material which
can enhances their product properties, as underlined Kumar.
For the next couple of years,
the higher end talc markets offer the greatest potential.
Markets such as paper, rubber, paints and, of course, plastics
are likely to show the greatest growth, Virta told
Kumar sees new trends in the use of
nano talc-polypropylene (PP) composites and very fine talc in
the plastic industry as additive and performance enhancer and
not merely as filler.
The construction based markets,
such as adhesives, architectural paints, caulks, ceramic tile,
joint compounds, roofing, and sanitaryware may lag behind
in terms of growth, at least in the USA and Europe. Kumar
In terms of geography, Fabi
underlined the growth of the Chinese talc industry.
Opportunities are ample in
European and Asian countries such as the Philippines, Cambodia,
Thailand, and India in all segments where high valued talc is
used for a specific function and application, Kumar
Among the newcomers, African
countries are also coming up with good requirements of talc
while Saudi Arabia and Oman are witnessing good
infrastructure development and a construction boom Kumar
Outlook: challenging but recovering
The talc industry is expected to remain very challenging
for all players, but will continue its recover, with some
regional differences in pace.
The obvious challenge is to
hold on until the effects of the economic recession are
history, Virta commented to IM, adding:
This is likely to take at least two or three more years,
given the debt issues in many countries.
In the best case scenario, we
see a flat outlook in mature economies, more in Europe than in
North America, Fabi declared.
In the USA, it may take a few years
before the talc industry reaches prerecession levels. I
do not think it will go beyond that given that the US markets
are mature and reached a plateau in the early 1990s. The same
will probably be true in Europe. explained Virta.
As expected, Asia will lead the way
while the Western economies tail behind. It is a quite a
different picture in Asia, the Middle East and South America
where we can only discuss if the growth will be of one or two
digits, said Virta, underlining that growth in the region
is likely to increase at a higher rate based on their economic
growth in recent years.
Kothari, Golcha Group, observed:
We see significant opportunities in South East Asia,
Europe, and South America. In India, the talc industry shall
remain stable with around 2% growth per year.
In terms of markets, a decline of
the use of talc in paper, especially in paper coating, is
expected while polymer, speciality, paints, and high value
cosmetics will boost the industry.
Improving quality will also be on
the radar. Although it would have been difficult to avoid
the impact of the 2008-09 global recession, producers may put
even more effort into further diversifying their product lines
and customer bases so they do not have their eggs all in one
basket, said Virta.
As Stuart from RBH explained to
IM, there are increasing opportunities
for independent talc suppliers to identify and source the most
cost effective sources for particular end
Talc users are increasingly
recognising that one size does not fit all and are
looking for specific performance from functional fillers,
Industry will gradually
refrain from selling talc in lower end applications as bulk
resources are getting depleted, believes Kumar from
Golcha Associated Group. For him, the industry will
develop newer applications where more revenue can be earned
from smaller quantities.
Koppelman from MTI expects growth
to continue as buyer businesses reach and probably exceed
pre-recession operating patterns. Talc has truly become
even more of a global market, with premium/value added products
having global footprints, he commented.
The consolidation trend is expected
to continue, notably in China. The recession probably has
shaken out some of the smaller players in the talc industry and
will likely result in some consolidation, Virta pointed
out. Further consolidation is expected to continue,
particularly in China and Asian countries.
In the short term, the main source
of concern for the industry remains the expected sale of Mondo
Minerals, while the closure of Imerys Luzenac acquisition
remains on the radar for all players.
But how will these two transactions
impact the market? Koppelman anticipates a changing selling
landscape and expects other large players to look for new
Overall, it is difficult to say much more before Imerys
reveals its talc strategy when the Luzenac transaction is
finalised, and before knowing who - an investment group,
an Asian or a Western mining company - makes an offer for
Talc at a
Crystalline hydrated magnesium silicate mineral with
Mg3Si4O10(OH), with a
theoretical chemical composition of 63.37%
SiO2, 31.88% MgO and 4.75% H2O.
World production: 7.45m. (USGS, 2010e)
- Main producers: China, USA, India, Finland, France
| Substitutes for talc
||Bentonite, chlorite, kaolin,
||Chlorite, kaolin, mica
||Calcium carbonate and kaolin
||Bentonite, kaolin, mica, wollastonite
| Consumption of talc by
market use in the USA in 2010 (%)
| Global talc production
capacity for 6.1m. tonnes
Source: BGS, USGS, China and by Ian Wilson