IM’s full price listing is
only published online. If you have any comments or concerns, or
wish to discuss any of the grades or prices listed, please
contact Barbara O’Donovan, Industrial Minerals
Chemical chromite market drops over 30% on low
Pricing levels for chemical grade chromite nosedived in
early May on the back of a combination of factors including low
demand, high stocks and falling metallurgical prices.
Following a first downward tilt in mid-April, when an
initial drop of $10-20/tonne was seen, the commodity then took
sharp downward direction, losing over $150/tonne against
IM’s chemical chromite, 46%
Cr2O3, wet bulk price fell by as much as
$150-170/tonne to $240-280/tonne FOB South Africa, according to
IM assessment on 9 May. This compares
with a previous price level of $410-430/tonne FOB South
Africa in end-April.
"There is weakness on the met grade market, and this has
thrown the chemical grade market off balance," a trader told
South African UG2 chrome ore index for material sold into
China was calculated at $231/tonne CIF as of 5 May, according
to IM sister publication Metal
Bulletin, having lost over $100/tonne since the end of
IM’s sources, including
suppliers, traders and buyers, said they were seeing UG2 priced
around $200-210/tonne CIF China in the first week of May, with
some quoting as low as $175/tonne CIF, leading to the lower
chemical chromite prices.
"Chemical chromite follows closely the pricing trend of UG2.
For this reason, chem prices kept increasing last year. Now
that met prices are down, chemical is following," one supplier
Two suppliers admitted the market for chemical grade
material is in a state of profound confusion: "Once the met
grade price settles, prices for chem will be easier to gauge,"
Traditionally there is a premium of $40-50/tonne on chemical
grade 46% Cr2O3 over metallurgical
Buying activity had been expected to increase over the last
few weeks, but that has yet to happen to a meaningful extent,
market participants said.
"Prices have dropped considerably," a South African supplier
said. "It is very hard to sell now."
Commenting on a deal IM had heard in the
mid-$300s done in the previous weeks, this supplier told
IM on 9 May: "Even that price would be great
He admitted no transactions had been concluded for some
weeks. He had stayed out of the market for some time, hoping
that the metallurgical price would settle, and described his
latest offers to customers as "shots in the dark".
High stock, low demand
Current low demand in China and rising stock levels in the
country are contributing to the existing price pressure.
On the one hand, buying activity from Chinese consumers had
been high right up to the end of December 2016, as importers
wanted to secure enough volumes to cover the needs of their
operations during the downtime of the Chinese New Year holiday
period in end-January, and the rest of Q1. IM
was told at the time that a number of large suppliers were sold
Since then, Chinese end-users have relied on existing
inventories while they delayed concluding any new contracts in
the hope that prices would climb down, following the five
year-highs reached in 2016.
This created a standoff – as some suppliers
described it to IM – which lasted
In the meantime, with customers not buying for weeks and
weeks, stocks of chrome materials available at Chinese ports
were being replenished. By early May, the chrome inventory at
ports were estimated at 1.5-2m tonnes, according to sources
both inside and outside China.
For comparison, when stocks were running low last year they
had fallen well below 1m tonnes, at a time of high demand from
both met and non-met markets alike. This means that the current
stock levels – with demand being slow – are
more than enough to cover impending needs of buyers.
IM was also told – by one supplier
and one buyer – of large volumes of still unsold
material currently being shifted to destination ports in China.
As availability increases, this could further dampen
customers’ willingness to buy: one large Chinese
buyer told IM he is aiming to wait until
prices fall further.
In the words of another supplier, "there is no pressure on
the Chinese to buy".
Another factor is reduced demand from downstream industries
in China such as leather tanning and fabric dyeing companies
– both users of chemical grade chromite in their
processes. The two sectors have been among the many industries
affected by Beijing’s widespread clampdown on
industrial pollution, and operations have been running
Foundry market holding
As chemical chromite is falling, the market for foundry
grade material remains overall more stable.
Suppliers and traders are maintaining their existing offers
as demand is in better shape compared with chemical and
IM was tracking foundry grade chromite, 46%
Cr2O3, wet bulk, at $410-450/tonne FOB
South Africa, while lower-purity foundry material, 45.8%
Cr2O3, wet bulk, was last assessed at
$400-440/tonne FOB South Africa.
Both grades have been unchanged since end-December 2016.
Dried and bagged foundry sand, 46%
Cr2O3, which is not priced by
IM, also held in the high-$400s FOB, according
Sources have stressed that foundry sand prices should not be
as volatile as met or chem material – hence the
current stability on this front. As already reported by
IM, it takes time for the foundry market to
catch up with price movements in the other two – that
is why the rapid appreciation of chemical chromite last year
took its price to a par with, or in some cases above, that of
At the same time, traders have cautioned that if chemical
chromite were to remain at these low levels for a prolonged
period, eventually foundry prices would also move downwards to
Chromite, chemical, 46%
Cr2O3, wet bulk, FOB South
Massive production shutdown in China lifts bauxite
A near-complete shutdown of Chinese refractory-grade bauxite
production lifted spot prices for the second time this year in
early May, with many traders struggling to fulfil contracts
following further environmental crackdowns.
The ongoing anti-pollution controls in China worsened in
April, with Beijing shutting down most bauxite mines in Shanxi
province, while calcining and processing plants in Shanxi and
Tianjin were also impacted.
Only a minority of facilities that meet the strict
environmental standards were allowed to continue production,
but raw bauxite supply remained scarce due to current mining
restrictions, two Chinese producers told
"Problems, problems everywhere I look. The situation in
China is getting worse by the day," one European trader told
"Everybody has been stopped. Nobody is producing because of
the environment [team] running around. They are going from
plant to plant. They will suspend production until September,"
It is unclear for how long such strict environmental
measures will remain in place but many are anticipating the
policy to be long-term, as tackling pollution has been
identified as a top priority in 2017 for Beijing.
Following a first round of controls since July 2016, many
bauxite production facilities that did not meet the state
required standards were shut down.
But ahead of the 13th National Games of China, due to be
held in Tianjin and Luoyang in September, authorities have
ramped up efforts to clean up the local environment, market
participants in China and Europe said.
The local government in Shanxi rolled out new environmental
policies in early May to tackle the pollution caused by local
industries, including refractory minerals production.
China-based suppliers spoke of a wide-spread, "crazy"
shutdown of facilities that did not meet the environmental
"Foreigners said it is crazy now in China. We Chinese think
so too, but what can you do if the country wants to sort itself
out?" one Tianjin-based supplier said.
According to one Chinese supplier, all Chinese plants
(factories producing all sorts of products, including bauxite,
magnesia and brown fused alumina), have to implement the
Firstly, all operations can only rely on gas or and
electricity for energy supply, as no coal or coke is allowed.
Secondly, plants have to install an external on-line system to
monitor dust control, and thirdly plants must install a
monitoring system for flue gas de-sulphurisation in the
"If the three [parameters are not met], the plants [will be]
closed until they do. This time it’s not a joke,
the government is really doing it," he added.
Shanxi accounts for the majority of refractory minerals
production, supplying most of calcined bauxite in the world,
according to market sources.
In early May, IM reported on the worsening
output disruption in magnesia producing region in Liaoning,
which was also part of Beijing’s crack down on
polluting industries (see p18).
Due to the clampdown on mining and smelting industries from
mid-April, bauxite supply has reduced dramatically, supporting
All refractory-grade bauxite prices increased by $10/tonne
at the start of May.
Spot prices of 85% refractory-grade bauxite (85%
Al2O3/2.0/3.15-3.2/0-6mm) rose to
$320-330/tonne on a FOB Xingang basis on 4 May, while 86%
bauxite increased to $330-340/tonne, 87% edged up to
$350-365/tonne and 88% climbed to $380-400/tonne.
Supply for higher-grade material, above 86%
Al2O3 content, was even tighter, with
very little trades reported as buyers were unable to source,
according to three traders and one producer.
Furthermore, any spot business for China-origin bauxite
would now require full pre-payment before delivery, and there
was a high risk that suppliers could still not fulfil the
contract, traders said.
"You can’t trust them even if they tell you
they have material," one European trader said.
Another European distributor and Chinese supplier agreed,
saying that there was the possibility that the material
delivered may not meet the agreed specifications and suppliers
could fail to honour contractual agreements at the last minute.
"[The situation] is changing by the minute. The next moment
they could say they can’t deliver the stock," said
one Tianjin-based supplier.
Still, many buyers run the risk of missing out on deals if
they do not comply with the new cash-payment terms. One
Europe-based distributor said: "They have to pay quickly. If
they don’t pay quickly, the suppliers will sell to
Despite the higher prices, many are still struggling to find
materials to fulfil annual contracts for 2017, while one
Europe-based refractory producer was experiencing delivery
delays in April, according to buyers.
The extreme shortage in bauxite supply at the end of April
and into early May has been compounded by some Europe-based
traders selling short - agreeing to annual contracts with their
customers in end-2016 without securing supply in advance, as
they believed prices will remain low due to oversupply, the
Europe-based distributor said.
"The problem is all these traders were selling short (...)
This is caused by lots of traders who were speculating," he
|Refractory-grade bauxite 86%/2.0/3.15-3.2
(0-6mm) FOB Xingang
Brown Fused Alumina
China’s bauxite mining issues to hit
brown fused alumina
The new spate of environmental crackdowns on bauxite mining
in China was set to reduce raw material supply for brown fused
alumina (BFA) production in the country, market participants
Key refractory-grade bauxite producing region Shanxi
announced new environmental measures on 4 May to restrict
mining and smelting activities in the province, as part of the
implementation of the "Soil Prevention Action Plan". Under the
plan, any expansions in the non-ferrous smelting industry
around residential, school, medical and retirement home areas
will be prohibited.
Furthermore, there will be strict assessments on the
environmental impact of a number of polluting industries,
including non-ferrous metal mining and smelting, chemical,
coking, electroplating, tanning, pesticides, lead-acid battery
production and others. Applications for the above sectors will
require evidence for the environmental impact on soil and on
According to a number of Chinese and Europe-based suppliers,
the majority of mining activities in Shanxi have stopped, while
calcining and processing plants in nearby Tianjin were also
impacted. Only a small number of bauxite production facilities
that meet the required environmental standards were allowed to
operate, two Chinese suppliers and two Europe-based
distributors told IM.
Although the reduced bauxite supply has yet to impact BFA
production in early May, one Europe-based distributor warned
that less raw material will affect the sector, thus supporting
Furthermore, ahead of the 13th National Games of China, due
to be held in Tianjin and Luoyang, Henan in September,
authorities have ramped up efforts to clean up the local
environment. This will impact BFA production in Henan,
suppliers in China and Europe said.
China is the biggest fused alumina producer globally, with
Henan province being the main producing region. Output in the
province has been intermittent since July 2016 due to the
ongoing environmental inspections.
BFA spot prices were unchanged for the past month but
high-quality material from Tipping furnace was scarce, two
Spot prices for Chinese-origin refractory grade BFA remained
at $550-600/tonne on a FOB China basis, according to
IM’s assessment on 4 May.
Lower-grade BFA (minimum 95% Al2O3 and
maximum 1.2% silica) produced from fixed or Higgins furnace was
offered at $550/tonne while the higher-grade material of 0.9%
silica content produced from Tipping furnace would be more
expensive, one Tianjin-based trader said.
"Tipping furnace material is not so easy to find; it
requires cash payment," the Tianjin-based trader said.
The Europe-based distributor warned: "If anybody has bought
anything for less than $580/tonne since 1 April, they may not
|Alumina, fused, brown, 95.5% min
Al2O3, refractory sized, FOB China,
|Source: Industrial Minerals
Chinese Acidspar spot prices hit four-year
Chinese acidspar spot prices rose to a four-year high in
early May as the ongoing nationwide environmental inspections
caused a severe supply shortage in the country amid better
coolant demand ahead of summer.
Restricted use of dynamite for fluorspar mining has further
contributed to the tight supply, several suppliers said.
Meanwhile, downstream industries such as steel and
hydrofluoric acid (HF acid) are performing well, supporting
According to custom data, HF acid exports from China
increased to 23,167 tonnes in March, the highest since
Spot prices for Chinese acidspar 97% CaF2, wet
filtercake rose $10/tonne week-on-week to $355-375/tonne on a
FOB China basis, according to
IM’s assessment on 11 May.
Domestic acidspar prices have also increased to over Chinese
Renminbi (Rmb) 2,000/tonne ($289.623) ex-work basis, excluding
VAT, suppliers told IM.
Metspar min 90% CaF2 prices were unchanged since
end-March at $330-350/tonne, while lower grade 85%
CaF2 also held at $290-310/tonne, both on FOB China
basis 11 May.
During this period of tight supply, Chinese fluorspar
producers have prioritised supply to domestic buyers who have
long term relationship, rather than export orders, suppliers
Acidspar spot prices have been increasing steadily since
mid-February as a result of stricter anti-pollution checks and
related fluorspar production shutdown in China. While metspar
prices were also rising, the increases were capped in mid-March
as the minerals’ value peaked, suppliers told
At least two Chinese suppliers expect the price uptrend in
acidspar to continue in the short-term amid the ongoing
Market participants outside of China, meanwhile, warned
against the interpretation of higher prices as being due to a
meaningful recovery in demand (see p45).
|Acidspar, 97% CaF2, Wet
Filtercake, FOB, China, $/tonne
|Source: Industrial Minerals
Market urges caution amid rapid China fluorspar
Fluorspar producers and consumers are urging caution in the
market amid rapid price increases in China over the past few
months as uncertainty persists around the global supply, demand
China, which accounts for about 50% of global fluorspar
supply, has been facing supply disruptions since late February
as Beijing imposed strict anti-pollution control on mining
activities. The supply tightness was further compounded by the
fact that the environmental restrictions came at a time of
lower seasonal output levels due to traditional winter
The reduced output combined with an uptick in demand for
refrigerant in Spring has lifted China-origin acidspar prices
in the past few months.
However that increase in demand is seasonal, market
participants said, pointing to the fact that consumption for
refrigerant traditionally increases in Spring due to higher
air-conditioning products sales ahead of the warmer summer
Industrial Mineral’s acidspar min. 97%
CAF2, wet filtercake prices hit a four-year high at
$355-375/tonne on a FOB China basis 11 May.
Prior to February 2017, fluorspar prices hovered around
five-year lows while supply far outstripped demand.
Fluorspar prices outside of China have remained largely
stable as most consumers remained well-covered by their
long-term contracts, which concluded end of last year. Despite
the recent Chinese price increase, suppliers in the rest of the
world have not raised their prices in order to compete for
In Europe, the acidspar markets has also been stable since
end-July 2016 as the region was largely covered by long-term
Acidspar min.97% CaF2 prices held at
$250-270/tonne on a CIF Rotterdam basis 11 May, unchanged since
In the US, acidspar 97% CaF2, dry filtercake
prices were at $260-270/tonne on a CIF US Gulf port 11 May with
the market relatively unchanged since July 2016, according to
Suppliers and consumers outside of China reported that there
has been no major improvement in demand and that supply
generally continues to outstrip consumption.
While global refrigerant demand has increased ahead of
summer as anticipated, the overall consumption volumes remains
within expectations, one supplier and three consumers told
"At the moment, we don’t see the demand
increasing, it’s just lots of HF plants having to
shut down," said one refrigerant consumer in Asia.
As part of Beijing’s anti-pollution crackdown,
many Chinese hydrofluoric acid (HF acid) plants which did not
meet strict environmental standards have been shut down. This
enforcement of that policy is expected to continue for the
foreseeable future too, as Beijing has made cleaning up the
environment a national priority.
China is one of the largest suppliers of HF acid globally
and production cuts has also pushed global refrigerants prices
Market participants outside of China remain wary, however,
that the trend is only limited to the region and that there
could be a change a policy given how suddenly it was enforced
in the first place.
"It is too early in the year to ascertain, in Europe it is
still covered by long-term contract. What’s
happening in China is very much in China," said one
"It’s a big, big jump only in China, we
don’t see it anywhere else," he added.
Consumers have also warned that China-origin fluorspar
prices could fall when the high season for refrigerant ends in
Furthermore, amid the ongoing environmental-related output
disruption in China, new production capacity is expected to
come on-stream in Canada later in the year. As a result, the
global supply and demand balance remains uncertain.
Canada Fluorspar confirmed to IM in March
that it is on schedule to start operation in Q4 and plans to
produce 200,000 tpa of acid-grade concentrate.
"The market is very unstable, I don’t know what
China will do, I don’t know if Canada will produce
at full capacity. Fluorspar market is very small,
it’s very sensitive," the producer said.
Amid new production capacity coming on-stream in Q4, there
were also talks of Kenya Fluorspar potentially restarting
operation after being shut for more than a year, a number of
consumers and market sources told IM. However,
a market source close to the matter emphasised that restarting
of operations in Kenya would largely depend on market
conditions in Q4.
CaF2, Wet Filtercake, CIF, Rotterdam, Holland,
|Source: Industrial Minerals
Pricing notice: Proposed changes to brown fused
IM proposes to change the below
specifications of brown fused alumina (BFA) on a FOB China
basis, with effect from 29 June.
• Alumina, fused brown, 95.5% min
Al2O3, refractory sized, FOB China,
With effect from 29 June, the BFA specifications will be
• Alumina, fused brown, 95% min
Al2O3, refractory sized (0-6mm), FOB
IM also proposing to delist the following
grades with effect from
• Alumina, fused, 94% Al2O3 CIF,
FEPA grits, acid washed, Chinese, $/tonne
• Alumina, fused brown, 94%
Al2O3, FEPA 8-220 mesh refractory (mm),
FOB China, $/tonne
• Alumina, refractory, brown,
Al2O3 95.5% min/ SiO2 1.20
max/ Fe2O3 0.30 max/ magnetics 0.10 max, lumps 0-14/
0-30mm, FOB China, $/tonne
The above prices are assessed every two weeks.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact
Industrial Minerals’ head of market reporting Yoke
Wong at email@example.com.
Rutile prices rise in China as ilmenite market
Spot market prices for rutile, a key raw material in
titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment production, have
risen substantially amid strong demand in May.
Industrial Mineral’s prices of rutile
concentrate min 95% TiO2 bulk CIF China rose to a
range of $800-890/tonne 11 May from $700-840/tonne
While bids as high at $890 were reported in the market, the
majority of business reported during
IM’s 11 May price assessment was
traded around $840/tonne.
According to one trader it was no longer possible to find
rutile trading hands under $800/tonne in China.
Rutile producers were increasing their prices in light of
the substantial increases announced by TiO2
producers over the past year, a titanium dioxide buyer told
TiO2 producers in China continue to announce
price hikes, while producers outside of China have in recent
weeks reported higher revenues as their own wave of price
increases begin to make a meaningful impact on the bottom
Rutile has now taken the lime-light from ilmenite, which has
experienced a steady rise in market prices in recent months.
Producers in Panzhihua Province, China have reportedly
announced a local price decrease of around Chinese Renminbi
(RMB) 100-150/tonne ($14.5- 21.7/tonne*), taking the steam out
of the market.
Industry sources told IM that the price
decrease announcement comes amid ilmenite stockpiling by
Chinese pigment producers who now have feedstock that could
last "for several months".
|Rutile concentrate min 95%
TiO2 bulk CIF China
Chinese supply decline could destabilise European
silicon carbide market
European suppliers of silicon carbide have seen an uptick in
inquiries in 2017 due to lower availability of Chinese
Nonetheless, silicon carbide prices in Europe have remained
relatively steady in recent months, within a price range of
€1,800 to €2,100/tonne DDP Europe for FEPA 8-220
Green min 99.5% SiC material.
However, a producer told IM that the
European market might see a slight increase in prices in the
"We have had a stable market almost since last summer,
however, less availability of Chinese material in Europe due to
the constant environmental controls in China has increased
material inquiries if compared to the past year at this point,"
the producer said.
"A slight increase in prices might happen soon as a
consequence of this strong demand," he added.
Acid wash and water wash silicon carbide FEPA 8-220 Black
min 99% SiC prices were also stable at €1,400-1,500/t DDP
Europe and €1,100-1,300/t DDP Europe, respectively,
according to buyers and sellers.
"The market has been quite stable over the past months
however we anticipate higher prices within the following weeks
mainly due to the output reduction in China," another producer
Refractory grade silicon carbide market participants shared
the same sentiment with prices reported to IM
at €850-1050/t DDP Europe for min 95% SiC material and
€1,050-1,250/t DDP Europe for 98% SiC material, both
unchanged since last summer.
Falling Chinese exports
Silicon carbide exports decreased to 22,175 tonnes in
February 2017, according to China customs data. Exported volume
in February was nearly 35% lower than in November 2016 when
shipments hit a high of 33,952 tonnes. Between November 2016
– February 2017, the average value per tonne of
material exported was relatively stable between $787.23/tonne
The reduction in Chinese silicon carbide exports was due to
heightened environmental controls in the country over the past
four months. In a bid to improve air quality and move away from
older, more polluting production facilities, the Chinese
government has taken a tougher stance on offending
manufacturers across a multitude of minerals.
Though European consumers and suppliers have yet to see any
change in prices, several told IM that should
the Chinese production and export levels continue to stay down,
it might raise European market prices within Q2.
|Chinese Silicon Carbide
Exports Feb 2016-Feb 2017
|Source: Industrial Minerals
Titanium dioxide prices break recent highs
Titanium dioxide prices in Europe hit three-year highs in
early May, with spot cargoes hard to come by.
Supply in Europe was understood to be extremely tight
although it was uncertain whether all material purchased were
being consumed immediately or some were bought in order to
build inventories, which have been depleted in recent
Industrial Minerals’ spot price for
pigment-grade titanium dioxide in Northern Europe rose to
€2,765-3,190/tonne 11 May up from €2,150-2,575/tonne
A European buyer said prices were "going up big time" into
the third quarter, noting that large cargoes were hard to come
Lead times for material were understood to have stretched
out to between 60 and 90 days.
"You can’t call up today and get a shipment
tomorrow which you could do 2 years ago," a consumer told
Major producer The Chemours Co was experiencing a backlog in
its TiO2 supply to Europe after declaring force
majeure on a shipment in April.
Spot markets in Asia were also increasing, with spot prices
for bulk volume TiO2 pigment rising to a two-year
high of $2,720-3,100/tonne 11 May, basis CFR Asia.
"There is no doubt prices will keep rising," a Chinese
producer said, a sentiment echoed by a buyer operating in
TiO2 producers in China continue to announce
price hikes while producers outside China have in recent weeks
reported higher revenues as their own wave of price increases
begin to make a meaningful impact on the bottom line.
How much capacity?
One European distributor suggested that the tightness was
somewhat artificial as not all facilities are operating at full
capacity, after a long period of inventory draw-down.
"I believe there’s enough capacity in the world
for there not to be a shortage," the distributor said,
suggesting that some facilities were still only operating at
But the Chinese producer noted that capacity would be lost
coming months, due to the con-tinued environmental crackdown
in China, with no new capacity likely to come on-line in the
|Titanium dioxide pigment,
bulk volume, CIF Northern Europe,
Environmental constraints push up antimony trioxide
prices in China
Constant environmental controls across the main Chinese
antimony provincial hubs of Hunan and Guangxi have led prices
upwards in China in early May.
Chinese authorities have cracked down on producers that fail
inspections including Chinese Hsikwangshan Twinkling Star. The
major producer was fined and its workers arrested after
inspectors found the producer was illegally discharging
pollutants, as reported by IM’s
sister publication Metal Bulletin.
Local authorities were firmly committed to enforcing
environmental controls seen in China over the past eight
months, market participants told IM.
IM’s antimony trioxide rose to
$7,950-8,050/tonne FOB China on 9 May, up $50/tonne compared to
the previous month, according to
IM’s price assessment.
An Asian trader confirmed new higher market values reached
in the past days explaining that the main reason behind the
higher prices in China was still the "environmental
Although the Chinese market reached higher values in early
May, the European and American markets remained unchanged amid
low levels of demand, traders and suppliers said.
European suppliers and consumers told IM
that antimony trioxide 99.5% Sb2O3 prices
have not changed since 2 May despite higher offers from the
The antimony trioxide 99.5% Sb2O3
European market held at $8,000-8,100/tonne CIF
Antwerp/Rotterdam 9 May, while the domestic market traded
between €7.65-7.70/kg in warehouse Antwerp/Rotterdam for
20 tonnes lots. Lower volume between 5-10 tonnes reached values
as high as €7.90/kg in warehouse
In the US market antimony trioxide 99.5%
Sb2O3 prices remained stable between
$8,000-8,200/tonne CIF East Coast.
North American trades were concluded between $3.70-3.75/lb
in warehouse Baltimore for lots of 20 tonnes.
Several suppliers and consumers told IM
that they expected higher prices for material going forward,
due to the higher replacement costs on the back of the
situation in China.
"Not only Hsikwangshan Twinkling Star but every producer in
China is currently under constant inspections subjected to
fines and other enforcement measures," a North American trader
involved with the Chinese market told IM.
"In China producers have been forced to adapt their
production facilities accordingly in order to reduce pollution
emissions since the local authorities seem to be seriously
aiming at reducing pollution within the main industrial areas
in China," the trader added.
Environmental constraints within the Chinese market
– which accounts for 80% of world production
– have been pushing up the global prices since last
summer due to the Chinese government’s commitment
to reducing pollution within the country.
|Antimony trioxide, typically 99.5%
Sb2O3, 20 tonne lots FOB China,